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Hannibal: the field of vengeance

In 219 BC, Hannibal of Carthage led an attack on Sagunto, allied with an independent city with Rome that led to the outbreak of the Second Punic War. Then he pulled his huge army over the Pyrenees and the Alps in central Italy in what would be remembered as one of the most famous campaigns in history. After a series of victories, especially that he entered Canas in 216 BC, Hannibal had gained ground in southern Italy, but refused to mount an attack on Rome itself. The Romans, however, recovered to lead the Carthaginians of Spain and launch an invasion of North Africa. In 203 BC, Hannibal gave up the struggle in Italy to defend North Africa, and suffered an overwhelming defeat by Scipio in Zama the following year. Although the contract ended the status of the Second Punic War, ending Carthage as an imperial power, Hannibal put his dream to destroy Rome until his death in 183 BC to proceed.

Early life and attack HANNIBAL Saguntum
Hannibal was born in 247 BC North Africa. Polybius and Livy Titus, whose stories from Rome are the main Latin sources of his life, Hannibal's father, the great Carthaginian general Hamilkar Barkas said, took his son to Spain (the region that had begun to conquer BC 237). Hamilcar died in 229 BC. He was succeeded by his Hasdrubal son, young Hannibal, who made an army officer of Carthage. In 221 BC, Asdrúbal was killed, and the army unanimously elected Anibal, 26, to command the kingdom of Carthage in Spain. Hannibal rapid control in the region of the base of the port of Cartagena (New Carthage) consolidated; He also married a Spanish princess.

In 219 BC, Hannibal led a Carthaginian attack in Sagunto, an independent city in the middle of the east coast of Spain, which had shown aggression against cities near Carthage. According to the agreement, which ended the First Punic War, the Ebro River was the northern boundary of Carthage's influence in Spain; Although Sagunto was ally south of the Ebro, with Rome, that saw the attack of Aníbal like an act of war. Sagunto Carthaginian troops besieged for eight months before the city fell. Although Rome demanded the surrender of Hannibal, he refused, instead of making plans for the invasion of Italy would mark the beginning of the Second Punic War.

HANNIBAL INVASION OF ITALY
He left his brother, also called Hasdrubal, to protect the interests of Carthage in Spain and North Africa, Hannibal gathered a huge army, including (according to probable Polybius exaggeration) 90,000 infantry, 12,000 pilots and about 40 elephants . The march, which covered about 1,600 km through the Pyrenees, the Rhone and snow-capped Alps, and finally to the center of Italy would remain as one of the most famous campaigns in history remembered. With his strength from the rugged crossing of the Alps, Hannibal met the powerful army of the Roman general Scipio on the plains west of the Ticino River. Hannibal's cavalry prevailed, and Scipio was badly wounded in battle.

At the end of the year 218. C. the Carthaginians, the Romans transformed on the left bank of the river Trebia to defeat a victory that gave Hannibal the support of allies, including the Gauls and Ligurians. Before the spring of 217 a. C had progressed in the Arno Fluss, where, despite a victory on Lake Trasimeno, refused his exhausted forces against Rome lead in itself. In the summer of next year 16 Roman legions, about 80,000 soldiers, an army that was said twice to be Hannibal, the Carthaginian collided near the town of Canas. Kept on during the Roman general Varro to the infantry in the center with his cavalry in each military wing train a classic Hannibal a relatively weak center but powerful infantry and cavalry forces on the flanks. When the Romans advanced, the Carthaginians were able to maintain their means and to win the battle on the sides to surround the enemy and the possibility of cutting retreat sends a charge of cavalry through the back.

A DEFEAT VICTORY
Roman defeat at Canas surprised much of southern Italy, and many of Rome's allies and colonies rushed to the Carthaginian page. Under the leadership of the son of Scipio, also called Scipio and Quintus Fabius Maximus his general partner, the Romans soon began to gather. Fabius cautious tactics used to and push against the forces of Hannibal to return to southern Italy and had a considerable amount of land won in 209 BC. In northern Italy in the year 208. Roman C. troops defeat an army of reinforcements led by Hannibal's brother Hassibal to assist the Alps in an attempt Hannibal had crossed over.

Meanwhile, the young Scipio was to begin in the apparently inexhaustible source of labor in Rome on the basis of an attack on New Carthage and expel the Carthaginians from Spain. They then invaded North Africa, the forces of Hannibal in 203 BC to withdraw their troops from southern Italy. To defend his home state. The following year, Hannibal Scipio found forces on the battlefield near Zama, about 120 kilometers from Carthage. This time it was the Romans had (with the help of their Numidian allies North Africa), which enveloped and smothered the Carthaginians, killing about 20,000 soldiers with a loss of only 1,500 of their own men. In honor of his great victory Scipio Africanus was given the name.

In the peace treaty, which ended the Second Punic War, Carthage was allowed to maintain its territory only in North Africa, but lost its kingdom in constantly abroad. I was also forced to make a large silver compensation to deliver his fleet and pay, and never agreed to build or declare war without permission from Rome. Hannibal, who escaped alive from the overwhelming defeat at Zama and still holds to defeat a Roma wish, retained his military title despite allegations that he had marked the conduct of the war. In addition, the civil judge was appointed in the government of Carthage.

According to Livy, Hannibal fled from the Syrian court in Ephesus to his opponents in the noble Roman Carthaginians to promote Antiochus III denounced by Syrian arms against Rome to take over. When Rome Antiochus later beaten, one of the conditions of peace demanded the surrender of Hannibal; To avoid this fate, he may have fled to Crete or rebel weapons in Armenia to be included. Later served König Prusias of Bithynia in another useless war against the Roman ally Eumenes II, king of Pérgamo. At some point in this conflict, the Romans asked again for the delivery of Hannibal. If he does not escape power, he committed suicide by poisoning in the Byssinian village Libyssa take, probably around 183 BC.

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