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TITANIC History From Beginning

A century sailed once the luxury steam arrived at the disastrous RMS Titanic end in the North Atlantic and sank two miles from the seabed by an iceberg during its maiden voyage Downing. Instead the intent of the New York Harbor, a deep grave, the final destination pride of the White Star Line More than 1,500 people were lost their lives in the disaster in the early hours of the morning of April 15, 1912 .. In the decades since His disappearance Titanic has inspired countless books and some notable films, while continuing to provide headlines, especially since 1985 discovery of his resting place off the coast of Newfoundland. Meanwhile, history has entered the public consciousness as a powerful tale of warning about the dangers of human arrogance.

The Royal Mail Steamer Titanic was the result of intense competition between rival lines in the first half of the twentieth century. In particular, White Star Line was in a battle for supremacy with Cunard Steamship, a venerable British company with two leading ships were ranked among the most sophisticated and luxurious of its time. Mauretania Cunard started the service in 1907 and set immediately instead of a speed record for crossing the Atlantic faster than for 22 years. The other masterpiece Cunard Lusitania was released in the same year of life and has been praised for its spectacular interiors. And he met his tragic end, they came in the annals of world history on May 7, 1915, when a shot of a German submarine torpedo sank the ship, killed about 1,200 of the 1,959 people aboard and the acceleration of the US registration in the First World War.

In the same year, Cunard unveiled his two magnificent linings, J. Bruce Ismay, director of White Star, discussed the construction of three large ships with William J. Pirrie, president of Harland and Wolff. Part of a new "Olympic" class liners, each would measure 882 meters in length and 92.5 meters at its widest point, making it the largest of its time. In March 1909, the great Harland and Wolff shipyard began on the second of these ships, Titanic, and sat uninterruptedly until 1911th spring

On May 31, 1911, the huge hull of the Titanic - in which the largest and most mobile time of the human world object of the bays was en route and on the River Lagan in Belfast. More than 100,000 people participated in the launch, which lasted just over a minute and went well. The hull was immediately drawn to a huge wharf where thousands of workers most of the following year passed the shipbuilding platforms, luxurious interior construction and its 29 large installed boilers that power the two main steam engines.

Titanic fatal errors
According to some hypotheses Titanic was condemned from the start to fail praised by so many to design a state of the art. Olympic class ships had a double bottom and 15 watertight bulkheads are equipped with waterproof electric gates that can be operated individually or simultaneously by a switch on the bridge. This waterproof bulkhead inspired magazine Shipbuilder in a special edition for the Olympic feed dedicated to examining "virtually unsinkable". But the watertight compartment design contains a defect that may have been a deciding factor for the sinking of the Titanic watertight bulkheads were made, water can pass from one compartment to another. Several contemporary Titanic owned Cunard, however, and innovative safety features boast artificial to avoid this situation. If White Star had taken a suggestion from his competitor, he would have guarded the Titanic disaster.

The second lapse of critical safety that contributed to the loss of many lives, the number of lifeboats was held in the titanic. These 16 ships together with Engelhardt four "foldable" could 1178 people. Titanic when it was full could carry 2435 passengers and a crew of about 900 brought its capacity to more than 3,300 people. As a result, even when lifeboats were loaded at full capacity during an emergency evacuation, seats were available for only a third of the people on board. Though inadequate unthinkable by today's standards, the Titanic's supply of lifeboats outdated, in fact from the provisions of the British Board of Trade.

TITANIC sets sail
Titanic caused a stir when he set off for his maiden voyage from Southampton, England, on April 10, 1912. After stops in Cherbourg, France and Queenstown (now Cobh), Ireland, the ship sailed to New York with 2,240 passengers and Crews - or "souls," the term then used in the transportation industry, usually in connection with a shipwreck.

As is the first Atlantic crossing of the world's most famous ship, many of these souls were high officials, industrial riches, dignitaries, and celebrities. First, the manager of White Star Line, J. Bruce Ismay Director, accompanied by Thomas Andrews, Harland Shipyard and Wolff. (He lost JP Morgan, whose trustworthy controls in the marine maritime merchant shipping to White Star Line and Ismay had elected as an officer of the company, but he was planning the deal to join his Titanic partners but canceled at the last minute.)

The richest passenger was John Jacob Astor IV, the waves had made a year before force Madeleine Talmadge to get married, 18, a girl of 29 years, divorced shortly after his first wife. Other passengers were the millionaire old owner of Macy, Isidor Straus and his wife Ida; Industrial Benjamin Guggenheim, his love, accompanied by the valet and driver; And the widow and heiress Margaret "Molly" Brown, who would gain their "unsinkable" nickname help maintain peace and order while lifeboats were loaded, and stimulate the spirits of their fellow survivors.

Officials who visited this remarkable FirstClass collection largely travel in the second class, in conjunction with scientists, tourists, journalists and others, who correspond to a first class level would enjoy on most other ships. However, the largest passenger group was largely third class: over 700, surpassing the other two levels combined. Some had paid less than $ 20 to make the crossing. It was the third class was the main source of profit for shipowners like White Star and Cunard and Titanic was designed for comfort and accommodations to those found in the third class of a ship by this time to provide such passenger.

The departure of the Titanic from Southampton on 10 April was not without its quirks. A small coal fire was discovered in one of their bunker, an alarming, but not uncommon, steamboat on the incident day. Stoker covered coal burns and pushed to the side to reach the base of the fire. After assessing the situation, he joined the captain and chief engineer who was unlikely to have caused damage that could affect the structure of the hull, and ordered that firemen control continue the fire at sea. Bring to a theory presented by a small number of Titanic experts, the fire became unmanageable after the ship left Southampton and forced the crew of a cross at full speed to try; Moving to such a fast pace, they could not avoid the fatal collision with the iceberg. Another disturbing event happened when the Southampton Dock Titanic came out. As released, he barely escaped a confrontation with S. S. New York New York. Superstitious Titanic fans often show this as the worst kind of omen for a boat party on their maiden voyage. Ironically, if the Titanic collided with the designated ship's door, the delay could have prevented the ship from being found necessary for its encounter with the iceberg position.

Catastrophe on board TITANIC
Wireless Titanic equipped with Marconi, and there were sporadic reports of other ice ships, but sailed in calm sea under a moonless system, clear sky. A point of view saw dead before the iceberg, leaving a slight mist, shouted the warning bell and the bridge phone. The engines were quickly reversed and the boat turned abruptly and instead of making direct impact, the mountain seemed to graze on the side of the ship, shards of ice over the front cover syringes. By avoiding a collision recognize the laid-back points of view. They had no idea that the spike iceberg subway narrowed the distance 300 meters below the water line of the ship, and the Titanic was doomed. When the captain visited the damaged area with Harlen Andrews and Thomas Wolff, five individuals were already filled with seawater, and the bow of the ship was surprisingly low area. Andrews did a quick calculation and discovered that Titanic could stay afloat for an hour and a half, maybe a little longer. At that time, the captain, who already instructed his mobile operator, to ask for help, arranged the lifeboats were loaded.

Just over an hour after contact with the iceberg, a disorganized and messy evacuation process began with the descent of the first lifeboat. The boat was designed to accommodate 65 people; He left with only 28 on board. Almost in the midst of confusion and chaos in the precious hours before Titanic sank into the sea, unfortunately, caused all the boats fully launched, some with only a handful of passengers. According to the Law of the Sea, women and children aboard the boat in the first place; Only if there were no women or children near the men were allowed to board. But many of the victims were women and children, in fact, the result of the confused process was the first to take them aboard ships.

Overcoming Andrews' predictions, Titanic management surfaced for almost three hours to stay. These hours experienced cowardly acts of courage and extraordinary cowardice. Hundreds of human dramas were among the developed countries to carry the lifeboats and last dive boat: men saw their wives and children, families who were separated in confusion and altruistic people left their seats with loved ones to stay or for that A passenger more likely to escape.

The most famous ship of the passenger responded to the circumstances with the behavior that became an integral part of the legend of the Titanic. Ismay, director of White Star, helped carry some of the ships and later joined a removable when he fell. While there is no near there women or children were when he left the boat, never live the shame, the disaster to survive, while many others died. Thomas Andrews, Titanic's chief designer, was last seen in the first-class smoking room, looking at a painting of a ship on the wall. Madeleine Astor deposited in a lifeboat and noting that she was pregnant, asked if she could accompany them; He refused to go, he managed to kiss her goodbye, shortly before the boat was lowered. Although a seat offered because of his age rejected Isidor Straus special consideration, and his wife Ida would not leave her husband. The couple retired to their cabin and died together. Benjamin Guggenheim and his servant back to his room and was in an evening gown; Thresholds on deck, he famously declared: "We dressed with our best and are prepared as men to go." Molly Brown helped the loaded boats and turned out to be forced on one of the last ones to go. He urged his team to return to look for survivors, but they refused, for fear that they tried flooded by desperate people to escape the sea freezing.

Titanic, almost vertically, and with many of its lights appeared still finally shines under the frozen surface at about 2:20 on April 15. Throughout the morning, Carpathia Cunard, receives after the midnight Titanic emergency call and steam at full speed, dodging ice packs all night, rounding out all lifeboats. They contain only 705 survivors.

At least five different investigation boards on both sides of the Atlantic have to interview extensive hearings on the Titanic wreck, dozens of witnesses and consult with various maritime experts. Every conceivable question examines the behavior of officers and crew in the construction of the ship. Although there is always that the ship sank as a result of the cut, which flooded the chambers, several other theories over the decades, including the ship's steel plates were too fragile for the waters of the Atlantic, near freezing to have caused emerged was Accept that the impact of the rivets come caused and expansion joints failed, among others.

The technological aspects of the catastrophe aside, the death of the Titanic has acquired a quasi-mythological importance deeper into popular culture. Many see tragedy as a moral tale about the dangers of human arrogance: The creator of the Titanic thought an "unsinkable" ship had built that could not be defeated by the laws of nature. The same presumption explained the electrifying effect of the Titanic wreck on the audience was when it was lost. There was no general doubt that the ship could have sunk and swarming because of the slow and unreliable time, misinformation. Newspapers first reported that the ship had hit an iceberg, but it remained afloat and was towed with everyone aboard in the port. It took many hours to render accurate accounts are available, and yet people had a hard time accepting that this paradigm of modern technology might fall on its maiden voyage, carrying more than 1,500 souls with it.

Historian John Maxtone-Graham send the story of the Titanic disaster of the Space Shuttle Challenger, in comparison in 1986. In this case, the world was spinning to think that some of the most advanced technology ever created could be forgotten to explode together with its crew. Both tragedies provoked a sudden and complete collapse of confidence, revealing that we are vulnerable, despite our modern assumptions of technological infallibility.

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