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A Day To Remember (21st February)

The International Mother Language Day is an annual celebration of linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. Before the World November 17, 1999 it has been officially recognized by the General Assembly of the United Nations in the important resolution 2008 International Year of Languages.

(Bengali: ভাষা আন্দোলন দিবস Bhasha Andolon DIBOS), which is known as the Day of the Martyrs language or Martyrs Day (Bengali: শহীদ দিবস Shôhid DIBOS) is a national day of Bangladesh to commemorate protests and sacrifices Bengali as a national language during Bengali Language movement in 1952 to protect.


It was a social movement built on the spirit of defending the rights to write in their mother tongue.

International mother tongue should be observed as of 2000 to promote peace and multilingualism. The date is the day in 1952 when students from Dhaka University, Dhaka Medical College and Jagannath College, demonstrating the recognition of Bengali as one of the two national languages of East Pakistan were brutally murdered by the police The government of Pakistan) near the highest court in the capital of Bangladesh, Dhaka.

"Mother tongue" is the distribution of a term used in various Romance languages - Native language (Spanish), mother tongue (Italian) and mother tongue (French) - and Sanskrit matribhasha and Tamil "thaimozhi". The most literal translation, and English is the "mother tongue" the most common, and the "mother tongue" has the same meaning and is also commonly used. In linguistics, the term "mother tongue" generally refers to an ancestral language, often a proto-language, of its language family downward.

Mother tongue was proclaimed by the General Conference of the Organization for Education, Science and the United Nations (UNESCO) in November 1999 (30 C / 62). On 16 May 2009, the United Nations General Assembly, in its resolution A / RES / 61/266, requested Member States "to promote the conservation and protection of all languages used by people around the world. "In its resolution, the General Assembly proclaimed 2008 as the International Year of Languages, to promote unity in diversity and international understanding through multilingualism and multiculturalism. The resolution was proposed by Rafiqul Islam of Bangladesh living in Vancouver, Canada. He wrote a letter to Kofi Anan on January 9, 1998 asking him to step up to the rescue of all the world's languages for the possibility of extinction and the declaration of an International Mother Language Day. Rafiq proposed the date of February 21, 1952, under the pretext of killing in Dhaka during the movement of the tongue.

After the division of India in 1947, the Bengali speaking people in East Bengal, the eastern part did not relate to the Dominion of Pakistan, $ 44 million re-formed rule of the 69 million people in Pakistan. However, was dominated by the western wing of the Dominion by employees Pakistan's Dominion government, public services and the Pakistani army. In 1947, a key resolution at National Educational Summit in Karachi advocated Urdu as the only state language, and its use in the media and schools. The opposition and protests erupted immediately. Dhaka students gathered under the leadership of Abul kashem, secretary of Tamaddun majlish, Bengali Islamic cultural organization. The meeting agreed Bengali as the official language of the Dominion of Pakistan and as a means of training in East Bengal. However, the Public Service Commission of Pakistan withdrew the Bengal from the list of approved bodies, as well as stamps and banknotes. Education Minister Fazlur Rahman made sprawling facility the only state language of Pakistan domain preparations to meet, Urdu. Public broadcasting and distribution of a large number of Bengali students gathered on the campus of the University of Dhaka on 8 December 1947 formally request that the Bengali is an official language. To promote their cause, Bengali organized student marches and demonstrations in Dhaka.


In 1952, Bengalis students from East Pakistan stood up and protested against the Pakistani government to declare Urdu as their national language. Most of the citizens of this country (of 1952), about 54% of the citizens were Bengali. In protest, some students have died Bengali language defense for them and for future generations.

At nine o'clock in the morning, the students started despite the article in the Dhaka University premises, 144. The Rector of the University and other officials were present, surrounded by armed policemen on campus . For the 11:15 students gathered at the university door and tried to break the police line. The police fired tear gas at the door to warn the students. Some of the students ran to the Medical College of Dhaka while the facilities of other connected academics sealed by the police. The rector asked the police to stop cooking, leaving the students to leave the area. However, the police arrested several students who hurt to invoke article 144 in their attempt. Exasperated by the arrests, the students gathered around the Legislative Assembly of East Bengal and blocked the lawmakers of the road and asked them to submit their insistence to the meeting. When a group of students attempted to storm the building, the police opened fire and killed a number of students, including Abdus Salam, Rafiq Uddin Ahmed Abul Barkat and Abdul Jabbar. To spread the news of the massacres, broke the disorder in the city. Shops, offices and public transport were closed and began a general strike. At the meeting, including six lawmakers Dhar Manoranjan, Boshontokumar Que, Shamsuddin Ahmed and Dhirendranath Datta they demanded that Chief Minister Nurul Amin visit the wounded among the students of the hospital and that the Assembly was Suspended in mourning. This initiative was supported by some Bank members, including Maulana Abdur Rashid Treasury Tarkabagish, Shorfuddin Ahmed, Shamsuddin Ahmed Ahmed Khondokar and Mosihuddin. However Nurul Amin refused the requests.

The details of the day: from 8 o'clock on, small groups of students throughout the city of Dhaka parade on the campus of the University of Dhaka and installation in the hall Arts Faculty of the University of Dhaka Dhaka. Processions students joined the school's children at 9 am. From 9:30 thousand students of different rooms, Medicine and Faculty of Engineering (now BUET) hostels are transmitted through different channels on the whole. At 11:30, the total number of students is reached collected about 20-25 miles. We demand that exchange Bangla the official language of the air is fulfilled. Armed policemen began on the streets before the arts and tear gas behind them squadrons built the patrol took position pending instructions.

In the midst of a situation so full Gaziul Huq put on the table his role as president of the historical attachment to take students. The first speaker was as representatives of the whole board of the language of the State party of action, the so-called do not break the emergency law, but before the Assembly expressed his personal commitment To the movement of the language to leave Samsul Huq 144th. Gas attack on a procession of students abruptly break the police news near Lalbagh spread to the assembly. This message led to the already explosive situation. In this case, both the coordinator and head of the language of government action University of Dhaka, Abdul Matin and Gaziul Huq, were their speeches to give support to break the emergency law 144. The crowd shouted Huq and Matins decision. "We do Law 144 standing, let's go," thundered campus slogans from the University of Dhaka. In the midst of great excitement, Abdus Samad Azad breaks as if somehow the detailed plan of the curfew. This was the famous procession of ten. He said that when the massive crowd could result in a 20-25000 procession to a terrible situation. So he suggested that instead of the large crowd a small procession of ten students one out after another would do. The supervisor of Dhaka University agreed with him and ordered the academic staff to open the door of the Faculty of Arts.

Thus began the famous procession of ten. All participants in the parade have sent voluntarily to the police. Habibur Rahman Shelly took the first set. Abdus Samad Azad and the second group Anwarul Huq Huq and Obaidullah Khan led the third group. College girls make up the fourth group. The female group was followed by a series of groups of children. It 'was an unprecedented view of sacrifice in defense of banglaise language. So far, all the protest was peaceful.

But the police intervention the position quickly fierce quiet shift. After several movements went through the door, the police started without provocation by the students, personal quotes at the door of the Faculty and the way forward. Riot police positioned away quickly intensified their peers with tear gas on the crowd to shoot. All art assets was shrouded in tear gas. Students ran to the pond to wash the eyes. eyes are washed and bring wet wipes to fight the police attack. Wounded by tear gas stormed angrily to the students the police with stones and shoes. A tear hit Gaziul Granada Huq and was taken unconscious girl in the town hall.

The fight with the police continued 14 hours at the Faculty of Letters. the entire campus has been turned into a battlefield. On the one hand, the police attacked the students with batons and tear gas. Students put them with bricks and stones. Hard by the brutal police aggressive students broke the wall between the Faculty of Arts and the University of Medicine. So, the fighting spread into areas of medical and engineering colleges. A large number of students were injured by a police baton and tear gas batteries.

The battle between students and police continued. However, the situation has reached its darkest phase, when at 15 hours, a group of armed policemen, charged by Koreshi district, came behind the counter in front of the Dhaka Medical College Hostel and took a position at the bottom of the inn and open fire. Some bodies took to the streets, flowing in the crimson blood stained streets of tone. precious lives have turned into Bangla alphabet. In the dark, tear gas field Dhaka University suffer the battle between the bulls and students continue to ignore the great sacrifice of the people for the first time in the history of humanity lives in the defense of the mother tongue.

Despite the brutal fire attack and tear gas, the police have been unable to present the medical school. The students were kept at bay by throwing bricks. Soon the students news will spread like lightning to pull the police. Life stopped in Dhaka. Thousands of people attended the tribute Dhaka Medical Hospital to payment martyrs. Shock and grief hit her face was stone, amber in their hearts.

The bodies of the dead and injured were taken to Dhaka Medical Hospital. Doctors and nurses rushed to the emergency room for their lives. One of the bodies was unknown because the head is burned. It was later identified as the body of death Barkat martyr.

Later that night, the bodies were brought to the mortuary. While the police have been some unidentified bodies torn affected public this afternoon, students, for fear that the police tries again to tear gas, there was the morgue door. But in the middle of the night, a group of armed commandos soldiers, escorted by police, broke into the bedroom door mortuary and took by force the body to the point of the gun.

However, some students continued violent military jeep and on foot have watched the bodies dumped in the near Azimpur graveyard. When the army left the cemetery, the students are identified from their hiding places and places where the martyrs were thrown. The next morning, thousands of people went to the cemetery and paid tribute to the martyrs of the Bengali language movement.


The constitutional reform

May 7, 1954 approved the Constituent Assembly a resolution, with the support of the Muslim League, to grant official character to Bengali. Bengali was recognized as the second official language in Pakistan on February 29, 1956 and article 214 (1) of the Constitution of Pakistan was reworded in "The language of the state of Pakistan should be Urdu and Bengali."

The military government of Ayub Khan formed but as the only national Urdu language The attempts again. On January 6, 1959, the military regime issued an official statement and reflect the official position of the support of the 1956 constitution of two state languages.

1952: The foundation for the day.
1999: UNESCO proclaimed 21 February (Ekushey February) as the International Mother Language Day
2000: Inaugural celebration of the International Mother Language Day
2001: Second annual celebration
2002: Linguistic-diversity theme, with 3,000 endangered languages (slogan: In the galaxy of languages, every word is a star.)
2003: Fourth annual celebration
2004: Children-learning theme; the UNESCO observance included "a unique exhibition of children’s exercise books from around the world illustrating the process by which children learn and master the use of written literacy skills in the classroom".

2005: Braille and sign languages
2006: Languages and cyberspace
2007: Multilingual education
2008: International Year of Languages
2009: Tenth annual celebration
2010: International Year for the Rapprochement of Cultures
2011: Information and communication technologies
2012: Mother tongue instruction and inclusive education
2013: Books for mother tongue education
2014: Local languages for Global Citizenship: Spotlight on Science
2015: Inclusion in and through education: language counts (with an event in Paris)
2016: Quality education, language(s) of instruction and learning outcomes

The Independence of Bangladesh

While the issue of official languages in 1956, the military regime Ayub Khan founded, defends the interests of West Pakistan to the detriment of East Pakistan. Although most of the population, remained the people of East Pakistan in civilian and military services, they are underrepresented, and received a minority of other state funds and public support. This is mainly due to the absence of representative government in the nascent state. Mainly due to regional imbalances, which increased the sections areas and supporting the nationalist Benjamin nationalist Awami League, which calls the movement 6 points more provincial autonomy. One problem is that East Pakistan, Bangladesh, which was then held at the Bangladesh Liberation War requested.


To commemorate this movement, Shaheed Minar  a ceremonial and symbolic sculpture was erected on the grounds of the massacre. The day is worshiped in Bangladesh and, to a lesser degree, in West Bengal as a day of martyrs.

This day is the national holiday in Bangladesh.

UNESCO decided to celebrate February 21st to celebrate International Day of Mother's Day.The General Conference of UNESCO took the decision in 17 force November 1999 when unanimously approved the draft resolution of Bangladesh and co-sponsor and supported by 28 other countries.

Outside Bangladesh

International Language Day is celebrated around the world, including Chile, Russia, the Philippines, Egypt and Canada.

In India

The government of India has decided to promote the content of the 22 officially recognized languages and scanned. As part of India's digital digital content initiative Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 22 languages planned to be provided, they spanning more than 234 languages recognized in India.

Sponsorships and prices

The International Language Day has inspired many organizations to identify individuals for the community and preserve linguistic diversity and issues related to exceptional service. In Alberta Ekushey heritage prices and Youth Awards Ekushey BHESA were unveiled and distributed by Delwar Jahid, President of the Bangladesh Press Club Center on several occasions.

Linguapax International Award

The Linguapax International Prize is awarded annually on International Mother Language Day Linguapax International in Barcelona, Spain on 21 February. Its purpose is to recognize and reward measures in different areas for the preservation of linguistic diversity, the revitalization and revival of linguistic communities and the promotion of multilingualism.

Ekushey heritage award

The Heritage Awards Ekushey is a recognition for those who stand out particularly in supporting their community. It was introduced in Bangladesh and the Ethnic Heritage Society of Alberta (BHESA), based in Alberta, Canada in 2014 by and is awarded annually. Today the award is open to people living in the province of Alberta, and takes into account the work of the recipient in areas such as education, social work and community services. The power can be granted on International Mother Language Day to several recipients and officially announced.

Ekushey Youth Awards

The Young Ekushey Prize was presented in February 2015, the Mahjur Jahid Memorial Foundation (MJMF) and is awarded annually to recipients who will inspire young audiences with their work and contributions in the fields of education, literature and services The community here. The honor can be attributed to several times and is open to the residents of the province of Alberta, in Canada. The Young Ekushey Prize will be announced on International Mother Language Day.

The implementation of the Mother Language Day

The International Mother Language Day is a holiday in Bangladesh since 1953, where it is known as Shohid Dibosh or Shaheed day. Although the day is observed worldwide, but it is not a party in other parts of the world. November 17, 1999 has been officially recognized by the UNESCO General Conference on February 21 International Mother Language Day.

Implementation in Canada

The International Mother Language Day has been recognized the Canadian Parliament by Matthew Kellway February 5, 2014 The introduction of a bill to Bill C-573 Private States has been taken.
In 2015, two Canadian provinces have the province of British Columbia and Manitoba approved proclamations officially celebrate International Mother Language Day, 21 February.


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